Twitter Vs. Zombies: New Media Literacy & the Virtual Flash Mob

Behind the scenes account of the game’s creation originally published on Pete and Jesse’s blogs.

While institutions ponder how to make excursions into new media more efficient and profitable, the pedagogues at the digital table must push the other side of the envelope. We should be creating critical and reflective experiences that invite learners to set their own goals, make mistakes, collaborate, and improvise.


In November 2012, we created and hosted Twitter vs. Zombies, an epic zombified experiment in Twitter literacy, gamification, collaboration, and emergent learning. On the site, the event was described as: “Part flash-mob. Part Hunger-Games. Part Twitter-pocalypse. Part digital feeding frenzy. Part micro-MOOC. Part giant game of Twitter tag.” The game had emergent rules and was unleashed in the days leading up to an invited talk we gave at the John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute at Duke University. Our thesis was three-fold: that Twitter vs. Zombies would function as a lightning-fast version of a connectivist MOOC; that it would build a community of engaged players who would co-develop the game; and, foremost, the players would learn more robust ways to use Twitter. It worked. With little advance promotion, the game inspired 6,500 tweets on the #TvsZ hashtag, had 160 officially registered players, and led to 2,500 pageviews on www.twittervszombies.com across three days.

The game throws players together under a common hashtag (#TvsZ). The first step in forking the rules of the on-ground Humans Vs. Zombies game for Twitter was to reimagine the hashtag as an in-game action. Twitter vs. Zombies begins with three possible in-game actions: #dodge, #swipe, and #bite. A player can #dodge (protect him/herself) or #swipe (protect other players from) a zombie attack once every hour. After a player becomes a zombie, he or she can #bite a human registered in the game once every 30 minutes. The game begins with a Patient Zero, who can, for a short period of time, #bite humans without restriction. The game’s scoreboard is an openly editable Google Doc where players manually update changes to their status (“human” or “zombie”) and record kills (successful #bite attempts). The basic mechanics of the game are: 1. register; 2. tweet at least 10 times per day; 3. include #TvsZ in every tweet with a game action; and 4. try to stay human or try to turn as many humans to zombies as possible.

A game intended for short bursts of play with scores of people, Twitter vs. Zombies is a social media adaptation of Humans vs. Zombies, a massive game of zombie tag played on college campuses around the world since 2005. In attempting to organize a community around the concept of digital literacy, Twitter vs. Zombies doesn’t rely on the exigencies of traditional schooling. The game offers no certificate or diploma, but an opportunity to connect with others, to compete, and, foremost, to play. Twitter vs. Zombies makes learning voracious and lively by inviting new (and often wild) modes of interaction.

When the game first began on November 9, 2012, at 4pm EST, players almost immediately started improvising, turning tweets into poems, constructing tiny narratives, and changing their Twitter avatar pictures to represent their new zombie status. Players built their tweets to include appropriate hashtags, action tags, and made meaningful sentences like this tweet from Giulia Forsythe: “@savasavasava I'm yummy all right, but please try a nibble, not #bite. I'm just not ready to be a zombie tonight. #dodge #TvsZ.” They began changing their statuses on the scoreboard to things like “Zombie-Narwhal” (@drjaxon) and “Zombie Totoro” (@briancroxall). Quite quickly, the game was not its rules, but the improvised narrative that arose around the constraints of those rules. And the proliferation of the hashtag #TvsZ was the catalyst.

The game evolved considerably over the course of three days, and the rules became significantly more complex. Every 12 hours, we released a new rule or action tag, all of which are
archived on the game site. Ideas for new rules were crowdsourced and ranged from blogging for a 1-hour immunity (#safezone) to uploading pictures of household items that could stun a zombie (#weapon). By the last day of the game, players had contributed scores of blog posts, photos, and Storifies. One of the most ardent human players, Bekah Hogue, was ultimately turned to a zombie and recorded a video message for the humans she left behind. Gerol Petruzella composed Twitter Zombie Style, a #TvsZ adaptation of Gangnam Style. By eschewing explicit outcomes, players were intrinsically motivated to investigate Twitter and its capacities. The learning was happening under the radar, the layers of which were revealed in the 6,000-word crowdsourced reflections generated after the game. With all the user participation and content, #TvsZ looked a lot like a connectivist MOOC.

Social media users develop network competencies equivalent to the networks they join, and in conjunction with research puncturing the idea of “digital natives” over the past decade (for example, “Digital Natives: Ten Years After” by Apostolos Koutropoulos), the exposure, or even immersion, in new technologies does not translate to fluency. A network of one’s friends, who may only use the network for communicating short personal messages will not push a user into new competencies. Without the impetus to follow, share, or tag in new ways, the user might simply replicate the functionality of a voicemail or a text message, thus missing the larger social and cultural potential of a network like Twitter. “If students live in a culture that digitizes and educates them through a screen,” as Pete suggests in “Occupy the Digital: New Media and Critical Pedagogy”, then they benefit from classroom practice that “empowers them in that sphere, teaches them that language, and offers new opportunities of human connectivity.”

Through the discipline of critical pedagogy, expertise and fluency take on different meanings. Paulo Freire’s contribution to the field of liberatory education re-imagines rigorous inquiry as an innate pursuit, decoupled from educational institutions which serve to maintain status quo hierarchies. In their introduction to Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed in Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, Levana Saxon and Virginia Vitzhum write that “[Freire] flipped mainstream pedagogy on its head by insisting the true knowledge and expertise already exist within people” (246). Connectivist scholars like Dave Cormier, Stephen Downes, George Siemens, Bonnie Stewart, and Alec Couros have demonstrated that this sort of democratic pedagogy can live rigorously online.

We wanted Twitter vs. Zombies to create a flexible system for learning how to use a specific social network and to study how the users of that system would adapt it for their own creative purposes. As the game advanced from the use of simple actions (#bite, #dodge, and #swipe) to more involved activities like blogging and photo-sharing (#safezone and #weapon), players within the game constructed a collaborative narrative of the simulated apocalypse. Each new rule, built “on the fly” as the game progressed, tried to engage increasingly complex skills. Over the course of the game, players new to Twitter learned to tweet with a hashtag, insert a link into a tweet, build lists, follow other users, publish media to WordPress and YouTube, watch individual feeds, use Twitter as a collaboration tool, direct message, and archive content in Storify. They wrote to save their lives, they negotiated, and they reflected on their learning about a tool from both within the tool and outside it.

Because of its scale, the game had to be self-governed to a large degree, and the rules emerged based on careful deliberation by the community. Players weren’t working for a grade, nor did they demand an umpire. They answered each other’s questions about the rules, made judgment calls collectively, and worked toward consensus to solve problems. Certainly, a healthy portion of the #TvsZ players were already heavy Twitter users, but many were not, and by experiencing the game together, players were able to learn from each other’s digital skills, creative adaptations, and strategies.

In February of this year, students in Pete’s class at Georgia State University in Atlanta combined forces with the students in Janine DeBaise’s class at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry to host Twitter vs Zombies 2.0. This student-organized project introduced a new pedagogical layer to the game; it involved preparing students for the kind of administration and composition necessary to host an engaging online experience. As part of their work for their classes, they constructed, moderated, and studied their own version of the game. The project immersed students in web design, network building, and narrative construction. Twitter vs. Zombies 2.0 collected 134 players from around the U.S., Canada, Ireland, the UK, and Germany.

There is nothing all that reasonable or systematic about the game Twitter vs. Zombies. What we’ve done is create a frame, a loose architecture from which narratives, epiphanies, relationships, and learning might arise. They do arise, if the players are voracious and expressly self-selected. The game offers the opportunity for them to map their own space for improvisation within it. The fact that the rules begin as a simple triptych but evolve via crowdsourcing allows players freedom within the frame but also the power to hack the frame itself. The crowdsourcing is integral to the play. Outcomes should not be wielded like weapons. We argue that mass-collaboration is essential to what we do as pedagogues, asking students to band together in deconstructing the hierarchies implicit in most educational institutions (hierarchies difficult to unseat without a mass of bodies working in concert, of which we as teachers become merely an arm). But the best learning activities also break the division between those inside the institution and those outside, confusing the boundary between who’s in the class and who’s not in the class. Thus, the frame of the class is just as primed for hacking as the rules of any “game” we might devise within it.

In A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change, Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown define play as “the tension between the rules of the game and the freedom to act within those rules” (18). This is exactly what Twitter allows, and why we’ve chosen to make it such a central component of our pedagogies, not because it’s the only space where this can happen online, but because it serves as a model for all the collaborative work we do, developing skills that ripple out into what we do in Google Docs, in Wordpress, and even within (preferably open) learning management systems like Canvas or Edmodo.

Our work on Twitter vs. Zombies does not attempt to lionize the Twitter platform so much as the creative potential of the users it enables. The most successful connectivist MOOCs, rhizomatic learning, and mass collaborative pedagogical experiments endeavor to promote methods over tools, communities over canons, and agency over assessment. Our work in classrooms, in professional learning networks, in open access publishing, and in Twitter vs. Zombies reflects our respect for the rigorous commitment to learning that a community can leverage for itself.

In this way, play is critical inquiry -- of the content of the course, the rules of the game, and the learning itself. Through exposure to uncertain parameters, communities, and outcomes, participants in the game automatically find themselves analyzing the game in order to play, to win, or to survive. This makes them active co-designers of the game, critics of it, and players all at once.

Within this collective of players and learners, there is no central authority handing down the rules. Contrary to the professorial, banking model of education, the rules arise from the mob. Thomas and Brown note that within a collective, “there is no sense of a core or center” (53). Each learner becomes both an explorer and an integral part of the intellect of the game. Each becomes their own source of authority, daring to improvise in order to make sense and meaning from the learning environment.

Cormier’s video session for the recently concluded ETMOOC reflects on the motivation for his first experiments with communal, negotiated learning. “The whole point of rhizomatic learning [for me]” he reflects, “was to take some of the great creative outputs that come from community learning and apply them to a structured classroom.” The design goals of Twitter vs. Zombies were similar; we wanted to create an environment that treated players simultaneously as students, community members, and storytellers. It was an experiment that was committed in equal parts to critical pedagogy, digital literacy, connected (or rhizomatic) learning, and play.
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The Game Gets Better as the Players Get Tougher

We learned from the #safezone and #extrabite rule introductions (10am EST yesterday) that creativity works. Humans, for the moment, are writing to save their lives. Zombies are writing to feed. The game dynamics are friendlier to zombies at the moment, but the new #weapon rule (10pm EST last night) should start to change that. The humans feel so threatened, and they’re being so quiet.

At the same time, we think it’s time for a purge. This is the moment in the narrative, about the halfway point, where the humans should stop taking it on the chin and beat the zombies back, while zombies get more aggressive after inactive humans. To spur that along, let’s imagine a little story.

At the start of the game, it appears that many of the humans found an underground bunker that was relatively safe; they tried to stay very quiet. But you have to come out sometime. It’s probably really dark down there and it doesn’t smell good. I know that you’re scared, but the game needs you. The humans who bunkered in the library and elsewhere around TvsZville need reinforcements. And the zombies need a challenge. They just lean against stair railings and on front lobby couches with a sad ennui in their soulless eyes. It’s time for both sides to take action, to re-animate, and to organize together for the final 24 hours (well, really 27 hours) of TvsZ.

From the moment of this publication, we are instituting two new rules (see the Rules documents for a more legalistic presentation):
  • Non-Tweeting humans are fair game for biting and
  • Humans can drag others into their safezones.

The combination of the safezone rule and the weapon rule should permit a formidable human posse to organize. If you can reach it (i.e., take a photo of it and upload to twitter) you can use it, a car, a fishing pole, a rusty nail, etc., knocking a zombie out of commission for an hour. (latest rule change: 10am 11/11). Remember: even if you can only swipe (protect) someone once per hour, you can #weapon those zombies all day long from the bunker with pictures from your phone of homemade weapons. You can #swipe and #weapon zombies from inside the #safezones. So humans, go collect the remnants of your broken humanity. Drag them out of the cold and get ready for surging back.

Zombies, get ready to eat. Because those humans can’t protect EVERYone. We give you permission to #bite anyone who has tweeted less than 10 times since 4pmEST, November 9.
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Twitter vs. Zombies: Best Practices

We’ve learned some things since the game began. People respond to things that are fun, especially when they also involve eating human flesh. They build community, they help each other out, they role play. They fumble around with tools they aren’t sure how to use. Now, after 18 hours, we want to collect some of the groupthink wisdom.

Reach out to others: Because of the limited numbers of bites, swipes, and dodges, it’s very hard to get anything done in the post-apocalypse on your own. During our human times, we waded warily onto Twitter, reaching out to others to provide back-up. If you’re registered, every tweet represents an entry into the game, so knowing who is online and can help you is key.

Drag your friends into the game: Humans can call on other humans to join the game. For example, “@JoeStommel I’ve just been bitten, dad, register at twittervszombies.com and save me with a #swipe in the next 5 mins.” But remember, once your friends have registered, they’re vulnerable. At this point, the game remains open for anyone to join, so think about pulling some folks in as defenders or as light snacks.

Band Together: Zombies work in packs. And, in order to survive, humans have to work in packs too. A follow-up #bite to a human that has just used a #dodge on another zombie attack can be quite effective. Likewise, keeping a few folks around with a #swipe handy is probably smart when you venture out as a human.

Think about visibility: Of course, in the real apocalypse, this will entail hiding behind cars and holing up in decrepit cellars. But in TvsZ, think about how hashtags function to broadcast your tweets. If you want to organize something VERY under the radar, you can use DM (direct messages) to people who also follow you. Even chatting openly with someone can be kind of quiet if you aren’t including the #TvsZ hashtag. If you are looking for some brains, you can search out humans in the game by finding their name in the chart and doing a Twitter search for the last time that they tweeted (search a user’s tweet stream by using a url like this: twitter.com/username). It does not matter whether they are using the game hashtag -- a tweet of any kind makes a human vulnerable.

Build a battle station: Use tweetdeck or hootsuite to watch hashtags. We recommend several columns, one each for #TvsZ, #TvsZ #bite, #TvsZ #dodge, and #TvsZ #swipe.

Watch the clock: Good strategy determines the difference between being turned and staying human, between a hungry zombie and a satisfied one. Humans have to be quiet about taking their leave of the game; they write their last tweet and they watch for five quiet minutes to see if they get bitten. Zombies can tell time too. If you’ve seen that a human has been quiet for a minute or two, wait until the player is close to 4 mins before biting. Five minutes goes by remarkably quickly. If you need back-up after you’re bitten, start those requests immediately. It takes people precious minutes to return tweets to you, and by then you might be undead.

Take risks: In order to stay in the game, you have to tweet at least ten times each day (whether with the #TvsS hashtag or not). Currently, we are reading that as the 24 hour time time period between midnight and midnight, leaving out the first half day of the game (Friday from 4pmEST-11:59EST). Any human who has registered for the game and remained inactive is risking starvation and a surprise #bite from the admins.

Watch the scoreboard: The community has added lots of columns to tally your spoils (meaty or otherwise). What’s most important, though, is that you know who your friends are (and who wants you dead).
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Twitter vs. Zombies: Spirit of the Game

The first thing you should know about Twitter vs. Zombies is that this beta-version pedagogical-gaming experiment is self-legislating. You must follow the rules yourself, own up to mistakes, work towards consensus over disagreements, and maintain your own stats on the TvsZ scoreboard. If you have legitimate questions please ask, but try to solve problems first. Going up the chain will slow down the game. You can also use Google Docs to comment on the rules, add to the comments on this entry, or use #TvsZ to discuss.

The second thing: game play (ironically) depends on kindness. Players should be communal and patient. Yes, the action will be frenetic, especially at the beginning and the end, and some amount of reckless abandon is warranted, but be kind to each other. The Humans vs. Zombies community has, what it calls, the DBag rule. People who play Ultimate Frisbee call this “the spirit of the game.” Be nice, AND be fun.

The third thing: it’s your game as much as ours. The community that circulates around the game will, in some ways, construct and reform the game. You will have the ability to suggest new rules and challenges, to write narratives of “events” in the game (especially useful for players involved in DigiWriMo), and to assist in game administration. Own it!

If you don’t know something, someone else might. Float a question out there. Don’t know what hashtag to search? Don’t understand a particular rule? Ask. It’s possible that other folks in the game share your interests or sense of humor. Embrace those connections. Now, go have fun. But sleep with one eye open . . .
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